Believe it or not, the science behind solar panel technology is quite simple.
Silicon solar cells are considered to be the vital component of solar panels. Silicon comprise of millions of tiny atoms with charged electrons. Two types of silicon are used in creating the most common solar panel design. The purpose is to create both positively and negatively charged atoms. To come up with negatively charged atoms, silicon is combined with boron while phosphorus is added to silicon to create positively charged atoms. By combining various solar cells, more positively charged silicon are produced while fewer negatively charged silicon.
How solar panels are created?
The silicon cells with positive charges are sandwiched with the negatively charged silicon cells. The configuration creates a reaction that produces electricity when the silicon cells are exposed to the rays of the sun. The solar cells are then placed carefully in a series of rows and the individual cells are connected using a thin conductive strip. The strip is woven over and under each piece of silicon cell so that the cells in the solar panels are connected; thus, creating an electrical circuit. The solar cells are covered with a heavy duty glass to protect the cells and then framed using an aluminum material. The back of the solar panels have two leads that connect solar panels together to form a solar panel array that are connected to the solar inverter.
Flow in a Solar Power System
The rays produced by the sun, also known as photons, hits the surface of the solar panel cells. It takes 7 seconds for the photons to travel from the sun to your roof. When the photons from the sun hit the solar cells, this causes a reaction inside the cells and produces a direct current of electricity or DC. It loosens some of the electrons and surrounds the atoms creating a gap. The negatively-charged electrons then separate from their atoms in the silicon cells.
The loose electrons travel through the electrical current to an electron gap in the cells. The process continues while the panels are exposed to the sun. The continuous flow of electrons creates an electrical current we call “solar power”. The solar power produced in the process flows to the solar inverter through a circuit. The solar inverter converts the energy into an alternating current of electricity or AC which is safe to be used to power up homes or sold to electricity retailers.